· Cold weather camping is challenging but is not as bad as you think, it can be enjoyable
· Having a good attitude is the key
· Minimal danger if you follow simple rules, learn the skills required and use common sense

       1. Good hygiene
       2. Have a good healthy appetite
       3. Keep your clothes dry
       4. Be well organized
       5. Protect yourself from the wind not only the low temperature, rain or snow
       6. Maintain high morale by making sure everyone has fun. Planning is key

The Cold and Your Anatomy

· Body heat is a great source of energy fueled by food, oxygen and water (body acts as furnace)

· When you are generating more heat than needed, your blood vessels dilate to allow full blood flow to the
skin surfaces of your extremities

· When cold threatens your body, the blood vessels constrict thereby reducing the blood flow to your
extremities. Numbness is an indicator of this process

· Much body heat is lost through the head since the blood flow
(oxygen) has to be maintained for your
brain to function

How We Lose Heat

a. Radiation - 50%-75% of the heat loss can come from the head. Remember ?When your feet are
 cold, put on your hat?

b. Conduction - Normally small amounts of heat loss. Campers handle a lot of metal objects
 therefore it is more pronounced. Use gloves, handle liquid fuels with great care

c. Convection - Warm air layer close to body removed by wind. Wear wind resistant outer
 garments with insulating properties

d. Evaporation - Sweat from the skin and water from the skin and lungs evaporate continually
 unaware as you may be. You actually want to help this process by wearing fabrics that breathe
 or if it gets cold enough it may condense and freeze right on your body

e. Respiration - Inhaling cold, exhaling warm air. Breathing is necessary; you have to live with
 this minimal heat loss

The Weather and Heat Loss

f. Wind Chill - Accelerates heat energy produced (lost) by your body

g. Water Chill - The thermal conductivity is up to 30 times as still air. Stay dry!

Keeping Warm, What You Need to Know

· Keep the body core warm - Proper clothing and activity rate for the weather conditions

· Ensure ease of blood circulation - Avoid constricting garments especially on hands and feet

· Proper type & amount of clothing - control clothing according to activity rate

· Pay attention to body's signals- Do not let body acclimate to feeling cold. Act as it gets cooler

· Use Insulation - Any material that creates ?dead air?. Minimize use of hydrophiles (natural fibers) they
absorb water. Most synthetic fibers are hydrophobic and easier to keep drier

· Regulate Perspiration - Types: Insensible, Nonperceptible and Perceptible. Control activity rate -
Ventilate - Rest - Change or dry wet layers - Eat and drink foods at close to body temperature

· Keep C_O_L_D  to Stay Warm - keep Clean, avoid Overheating, wear Layers, stay Dry
Archery, Indoor Range
Winter Camping
Bird Identification
Planning Your Winter Trip
Camping Trip Checklist
Your Body and the Cold
Fire Building Checklist
Personal Equipment
Sleeping Systems
Map Symbols
Orienteering Club Links
Orienteering Event
Camp Sanitation
Orienteering Training Outline
Safe Hiking
Tree Identification
Aquehonga Tree Trail
Snow Blindness
Back To Skills and Training Aids
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