The body does not have enough fluids to function at an optimal level ? Due to excessive loss of
body water (intake, output or both)

· In -
through mouth

· Out - through the lungs, skin, gastrointestinal tract and the kidneys (cold increases urine output)


Mild dehydration: a loss of 3-5% of body weight
     · Increased pulse rate · Nausea and loss of appetite · Dark urine or constipation ·
     Irritability, fatigue, sleepiness · Thirst
(may not be noticeable in cold weather)

Moderate dehydration: a loss of 6-10% of body weight
     · Headache, dizziness · Labored breathing · Tingling in extremities · Absence of salivation ·
     Inability to walk · Bluish or grayish skin color

Severe dehydration: Life-threatening emergency a loss of more than 9-15%
     · Swollen tongue, inability to swallow  · Shriveled, numb skin · Painful urination · Delirium,
     unconsciousness, and death

Prevention (Especially in cold-weather survival situations)

1.   Need to drink at least 2 quarts of water a day
2.   Water intake should be increased at first sign of darker colored urine
3.   Avoid dehydrating foods
(caffeinated drinks and high protein foods)

First Aid Care

1. Mild cases: victim should drink liquids, keep warm, and rest
2. More severe cases require professional medical treatment
3. Stay With The Victim until medical help arrives
4. Seek professional medical assistance as soon as possible
Archery, Indoor Range
Winter Camping
Bird Identification
Planning Your Winter Trip
Camping Trip Checklist
Your Body and the Cold
Fire Building Checklist
Personal Equipment
Sleeping Systems
Map Symbols
Orienteering Club Links
Orienteering Event
Camp Sanitation
Orienteering Training Outline
Safe Hiking
Tree Identification
Aquehonga Tree Trail
Snow Blindness
Please Note:
 All information on is for training and educational purposes only.
For specific medical advice, diagnoses, treatment, and care consult your doctor or a medical professional

Yahoo! Health Encyclopedia, Copyright 2002 A.D.A.M, Inc., Copyright 2002 Yahoo Inc.
Boy Scout Handbook, Copyright 1998 by the Boy Scouts of America
Field Book, Copyright 1967, 1984 by the Boy Scouts of America
Okpik: Cold-Weather Camping, Copyright 1990 by the Boy Scouts of America
OA Guide to Winter Camping, Copyright 1995 Rick Curtis, Outdoor Action Program, Princeton University
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