This TRAINING OUTLINE was compiled in preparation for the 2001 Pathfinder Camporee and subsequent training courses. It is a work in
progress and continues to be updated everytime it is used based on the feedback from the attendees and the instructors
· Orienteering is a sport, all about maps  (a race similar to a car Rally)
· All you need: map, compass, curiosity & common sense
· No marked course, just a map showing checkpoints (controls)
· Object is to complete course, stopping @ each checkpoint and as fast as you can

Orienteering Etiquette
· Visit controls in numerical order
· Do not deliberately follow other orienteers
· Ask for assistance only if lost or injured
· Cross fences at gates or posts only
· Avoid disturbing farm animals
· Respect private property
· Report any damage at the finish
· Do not litter (If anything pick up the litter you come across)

Required Map Skills
· Orienting map
· Protecting, folding, & carrying maps
· Being able to “thumb” along line of travel
· Read fine contours, relate actual land forms
· Judge actual distance, relation to map scale
· Constantly relate the map to the ground to ensure accuracy in navigation

Compass Skills Needed
· Useful aid,   (USE MINIMALLY)
· Orienting the map
· How to take bearings in the field
· How to take bearings on the map
· Orienteering maps are drawn to MAGNETIC NORTH

Offset Technique (Aiming off)
· Can be used when the line of travel will meet collecting features (road, river…)
· Deliberately missing the mark to not waste time hunting for the control upon arrival
· Allows you to ensure which way to turn from the attack point

Distance and Time
· Unit of measure is metric
· A meter = 39.37"
· 100 meters = 328 feet · Pace is two steps (approx 5' for most)
· 100 meters on paths & roads .75 minute
· 100 meters through meadows 1.5 minute
· 100 meters through open woods 2.25 minutes
· Know your pace

Collecting features
· A line feature (road, stream, trail, RR tracks)
· Large feature (building, lake/pond)
· Easily seen to prevent overshooting the control

Attack Point
· An easily recognized feature
· Well defined
· Close to the control
· Ensures accurate navigation to the control

· Marked with visible marker (orange/white)
· A specific point on a course
· Has to be located by the orienteer
· Marked on the map with a red circle
· Check control number against control description sheet (clue sheet)
· In the field, by a three sided orange and white marker flag

Control Card (clip card)
· The card carried around the course
· Check control number against description sheet (clue sheet)
· Card is clipped (punched) at each control
· Make sure you punch it in the correct box

Control Descriptions Sheet (clue sheet)
· Control number or code
· Can be pictorial or written
· Identifies each control
· e.g. track junction, building, RR track, ect.

· A line feature (track, fence or stream)
· Can easily be followed by the orienteer

· Country to be navigated between two controls

Line feature
· Linear features
· Power lines, roads, hedges, streams
· Can be used as handrails or collecting features

· Small gully or valley
· Which has no permanent watercourse

Setting (Orienting)
· Turning the map so that the symbols match the features in the field
· This is done with or without a Compass

· Placing the thumb on the map
· Where the orienteer is situated
· As the orienteer travels the thumb moves accordingly on the map

Types of Competitions
· Point-to-Point (Cross-Country) (Free) Orienteering
· Most common, controls visited in order, staggered start times
Score Orienteering
· Mass start, controls have point values, time limit same for every competitor
Line Orienteering
· Follow line, find the controls
Relay Orienteering
· Same as point to point, course subdivided into separate loops
Route Orienteering
· follow streamers, map shows start & finish, draw course & controls on map
Norwegian Orienteering
· map shows start & first control, each control reveals next section of map
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